In general, most drivers do not attentive to the vehicle's brakes until something happens wrong such as a creaking or squeaking noise, washed-out brake pedal feeling, an erratic smell, or exasperating shining lights on your dashboard of the vehicle.
Currently, using a braking system of the vehicles, especially after 2004, anti-lock braking systems are introduced and implemented in all newly manufactured cars, is crucially more complicated than the previously used simple braking system of the vehicle. Because of this, the vehicle's braking system must be adequately maintained.
At present, let's focus on identifying possible problems at the components of a usual braking system that require servicing.
COMPONENTS OF BRAKE
A Specific oil (fluid) that transmits hydraulic pressure to each wheel through brakes with the help of brake pedal, brake booster, and master cylinder. This important component, which requires regular inspection, is often ignored in the braking system. If water enters the braking system, brake oil (fluid) may be compromised, which will shake the braking system performance.
Nowadays, a few manufactured cars use drum brakes on the rear wheels. A brake drum is thicker than the other brake components are mounted inside the chassis.
Brake Rotors or Discs:
Most cars now a day's use rear and front rotors, which are thick steel discs attached to the rear and front axles. These discs are connected to the wheels of the car. A twisted brake disc can be sensed as a vibration of the pedal of a brake in the braking system.
This is mounted inside the engine section in front of the driver, and the key role of the master cylinder is to give the direction to the brake oil or fluid out with the help of the brake lines to each wheel of the vehicle, where brake pads are compressed to retard or stops the moving car or vehicle. A brake booster or master cylinder is usually initiated by fluid leakage and is generally treated as a soft brake pedal.
Brake Shoes or Block:
Brake shoes are mounted on the calipers inside the cylinders of the disc brakes. Most of the brake shoes are made up of soft metals. After some time, they wear out because they are softer than brake drum or discs material. A common signal of a worn brake disc is an unpleasant or metallic crushing sound from wheels when applying the brake. This commonly means that the steel plate is now directly in contact with the drum. In this case, brake shoes and drum or disc require replacement.
Anti-lock Braking System (ABS):
The ABS consists of actuators, wheel speed sensors, a control unit, and pressure release valves. During braking, this intricate computer-controlled system works by monitoring or controlling the speed of each wheel of the vehicle. When a wheel starts to lock up due to braking hard over a greasy surface, the anti-lock braking system immediately initiates a rapid spring release/break that decelerates the vehicle while also maintaining it under control.
Rotors and brake calipers are used in combination. Brake calipers grip the rotor and grasp the brake shoes. When the brake is applied, the fluid or oil forces the brake calipers to compress the brake lining, pressing it into contact with the rotor, and this pressure stops and slows the vehicle. There is a grinding or squeaking sound, fluid leaking, soft-pedaling, a burning smell while driving, and the car pulling to one side, usually indicating calipers are not working.
Dr. Dharmendra Tyagi
Sagar Institute of Research & Technology